Equipment and Methods

Trace Analysis

  • High-resolution ICP magnet sector mass spectrometer (ICP-MS)
  • ICP Optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES)
  • Microwave digestion system
  • Evaporation unit
  • Laser ablation system (LA)
  • Electrothermal vaporization (ETV)
  • Wetting angle measurement
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR)
© Fraunhofer CSP

The ICP-MS is loaded with samples.


  • Squarer (wire-based) for singulation of G4/G5 ingots into bricks 156 mm x 156 mm
  • Grinding machines for brick surface and edge treatment
  • IR brick inspection system for identifying SiC/SiN inclusions
  • Carrier recombination lifetime and resistivity measurement on bricks for electrical characterization and quality control
  • Cropper (wire-based) to cut off top and tail of bricks
  • Band saw for squaring and cropping monocrystalline ingots and for processing non-standard dimensions
  • Wire saws (800 mm and 300 mm load capacity) for manufacturing mono- and multicrystalline wafers
  • Pre-cleaning tool for de-gluing wafers after sawing
  • In-line fine-cleaning for final wafer cleaning
  • In-line measuring system with sorter for final wafer quality control and classification
© Fraunhofer CSP

Rolf Tornow supervises the characterization of the sawing process.

Mechanics of Wafers and Cells

  • Non-contact thickness and topography measurement of wafers
  • Mechanical test methods for wafers and cells (e.g. 3-point and 4-point bending test, ring-on-ring test, ball-on-ring test)
  • Mechanical test methods for wires used in wafer sawing
  • Micro indentation tests for determination of material parameters
  • Pressure foils for loading analysis on wafer level
  • Photoelasticity measurement set-up for investigations of residual stress in silicon on block and wafer level
  • Workstations for numerical simulations (finite element method) of mechanical, thermomechanical, fracture-mechanical and statistical analyses (also used by the group »Module Reliability«)
© Fraunhofer CSP

Bending of a monocrystalline silicon wafer in the 4-point bending test.

Texturing and Passivation

  • Plasma Enhanced Chemical Gas Phase Deposition (PECVD)
  • Plasma texturing with SF6 or / and CF4 gases
  • Quasistation photoconductivity (QSSPC) of blocks and wafers
  • In situ measurement of charge carrier-induced degradation and regeneration
  • Microwave-induced photoconductivity (μ-PCD)
  • Kelvin Probe
© Fraunhofer CSP

Marcus Gläser setzt die Apparatur zur Plasmaverstärkten chemischen Gasphasenabscheidung (PECVD) in Gang.