Equipment and Methods

c-Si Defect Diagnostics

  • Metallography, ion and laser beam assisted sample preparation tools
  • ns laser structuring (1064 nm, 566 nm, 355 nm)
  • inkjet printing
  • Microscopy (optical, NIR, module microscopy)
  • Electroluminescence Microscopy (EL, µEL)
  • Lock-in Thermography
  • Laser Scanning Microscopy
  • Analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX, EBSD, EBIC
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with EDX
  • Focused ion beam (FIB)
  • Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
  • X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS)
  • Scanning probe microscopy (AFM/SPM)
  • Electrical micro probe characterization
  • Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM)
© Fraunhofer CSP

With the PIDcon test device potential-induced degradation (PID) can already be detected at the solar cell level.

Thin Film Characterization

  • Metallography, ion and laser beam assisted sample preparation tools
  • ns laser structuring (1064 nm, 566 nm, 355 nm)
  • Inkjet printing
  • Microscopy (optical, NIR, module microscopy)
  • Electroluminescence Microscopy (EL, µEL)
  • Lock-in Thermography
  • Laser Scanning Microscopy
  • Analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX, EBSD, EBIC
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with EDX
  • Focused ion beam (FIB)
  • Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
  • X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS)
  • Scanning probe microscopy (AFM/SPM)
  • Electrical micro probe characterization
  • Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM)
© Fraunhofer CSP

In the UHV chamber of the ToF-SIMS the chemical composition of a sample is determined with the aid of ion-sputtering sources.

Electrical Characterization

  • Injection-dependent carrier lifetime (Si-block, -wafer)
  • Carrier-lifetime mapping (Si-block, -wafer)
  • Conductivity measurements (four-point, eddy current)
  • Position resolved electroluminescence (cells and mini-modules)
  • Position resolved photoluminescence (si-blocks, -wafers, solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Position-resolved lock-in-thermographie (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Light-induced local currents LBIC (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Internal and external quantum efficiency (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Chracterization of passivation layers
  • Doping profiles based on resistivity
  • Current-voltage-curves and parameter extraction (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Solar simulator
© Fraunhofer CSP

With the sun simulator WaveLabs Sinus-220, doctoral student Tabea Luka measures the current yield at different light wavelengths.