Module Technology

In the field of module technology, we conduct research on standard modules and specialized modules. As far as standard modules are concerned, lowering the electricity generation costs is of primary importance. This can be achieved either by increasing the performance (cell-to-module power ratio – CTM), process development for new less expensive materials, or new and more efficient technologies.

Specialized modules fulfill important functions in specific photovoltaic applications. For example, we develop products, processes and materials to be used in buildings (BIPV – Building Integrated Photovoltaics) or in mobile applications (VIPV- Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics).

We offer:

  • An automated technology line to manufacture solar modules in all formats up to 2.2m x 2.6m with a thickness of up to 5cm and a manual technology line to manufacture special modules in sizes of 1m x 2m with a thickness of up to 30cm.
  • Analytics to characterize solder connections and the optical properties of solar modules and solar module components
  • Simulation of optical, electrical and thermal properties of solar modules


Development of
Processes and Measures for Efficiency Improvement and New Materials


Development of New Products for Specific

Manufacturing of Standard and Sondermodules

3D vacuum laminator
© Fraunhofer CSP
Matthias Schak and Michael Wendt while equipping the 3D vacuum laminator.
  • Module production line (Module size 0.7 x 1.2 m up to 2.2 x 2.6 m)
  • Fully automatic industrial tabber stringer for whole and half cells with 3, 4 or 5 bus bars
  • Glass washing machine
  • Variable cell string layup
  • Lab and large scale module laminator
  • RTP oven
  • Screen printer
  • cross section preparation station
  • Precision testing machines for cell interconnection and module packaging characterization

Interconnection Technologies

Solar cell soldering
© Fraunhofer CSP
Solar cell soldering in IR soldering unit.
  • Cross section preparation tools for specimen make for microstructure analyses
  • Cross section analysis by light microscopy, SEM, etc. incl. material compound analysis and formation (DIC; POL, EDX, etc.)
  • Characterization of time and temperature dependent material behavior of interconnection materials (TMA, DMA, DSC, TGA)
  • Contact angle measurement equipment for static / dynamic measurements of contact angles and surface tension
  • Wetting balance tester for logging wetting force time progression
  • Pull-/shear tester for evaluation of the mechanical strength of PV contact structures
  • Ultrasonic microscopy and X-ray scanner for non-destructive analysis of interconnection interfaces and contact formation
  • Assembly and soldering stations for test applications and specimen production on cell and module level
  • Laser profilometer and confocal white light microscope for surface structure analyses of cell metallizations, etc.


Sun Power from House Walls


Solar Power for Truck Roofs