The Next Level for Thin-film Solar Modules

Exhausting the potential of solar modules based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and making it usable for production on an industrial scale is the objective of a joint project of the Fraunhofer CSP and Calyxo GmbH.

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Quality Control with Raman Spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy allows to detect and analyze impurities in the material of solar cells during production. Together with partners, the Fraunhofer CSP wants to further develop this idea.

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Precise LID Testing for PERC Cells

PERC cells can lose performance due to LID. The test device LID Scope, developed by the Fraunhofer CSP, determines how strongly they are affected.

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Diagnostics and Metrology

Performance, reliability and cost efficiency are the decisive characteristics of a perfect solar cell. The »Diagnostics of Solar Cell« group is working on these issues, supported by industrial sponsors and partners in research and development. The teams »Electric Characterization«, »c-Si Defect Diagnostics« and »Thin-film Characterization« set the standards for quality assurance and failure analysis in photovoltaics. To this end, a broad spectrum of material-scientific methods are available – ranging from trace element analytics over quantum efficiency all the way to atomic microstructure diagnostics.

Research activities span from the characterization of the crystalline solar silicon to the microstructure-based failure diagnostics for the thin-film photovoltaic industry. In addition, new layer systems and laser structuring methods are being developed for the next generation of solar cells.

 

We offer:

  • Rapid testing tools for module defects such as PID
  • Electric characterization of solar cell, wafers and blocks
  • Microstructure diagnostics on crystalline solar cells and thin-film modules

 

c-Si Defect Diagnostics from Modules down to Atom

All components along the value-added chain from solar cell production to the module can be analyzed in terms of structure and chemical composition both macroscopically and microscopically down to the nanometer range and are available to our customers for rapid material and quality assessment.

 

Thin Film-PV: Micro Analytics and Laser Processing

We determine the reliability of thin-film solar modules by means of spatially resolved yield/loss analyses and causal research into failures in open-field and laboratory installations. We design and manufacture special test structures using laser structuring and coating technology.

 

Surface and Film Characterization

The high efficiencies of current solar cells and photovoltaic modules are based to a large extent on the special chemical and electronic properties of thin layers and interfaces. We offer high-resolution and highly sensitive layer analysis at all integration levels of PV modules to elucidate their morphological, chemical, electrical and electrical properties.

 

 

Electrical Characterization

Hohe Effizienz und lange Lebensdauer sind zwei der zentralen Anforderungen an innovative Photovoltaikprodukte. Für die quantitative Bewertung kommen am Fraunhofer CSP innovative Labormessverfahren für Solarzellen und -module in Kombination mit statistischer Datenauswertung, Modellierung und numerischer Simulation zum Einsatz.

Equipment Development

 testing equipment PIDcon
© Fraunhofer CSP
Thanks to the testing equipment PIDcon potential-induced degradation (PID) can be detected already on solar cell level.

c-Si Defect Diagnostics

Thin Film Characterization
© Fraunhofer CSP
  • Metallography, ion and laser beam assisted sample preparation tools
  • ns laser structuring (1064 nm, 566 nm, 355 nm)
  • inkjet printing
  • Microscopy (optical, NIR, module microscopy)
  • Electroluminescence Microscopy (EL, µEL)
  • Lock-in Thermography
  • Laser Scanning Microscopy
  • Analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX, EBSD, EBIC
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with EDX
  • Focused ion beam (FIB)
  • Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
  • X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS)
  • Scanning probe microscopy (AFM/SPM)
  • Electrical micro probe characterization
  • Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM)

Thin Film Characterization

UHV chamber of the ToF-SIMS
© Fraunhofer CSP
In the UHV chamber of the ToF-SIMS the chemical composition of a sample is determined with the aid of ion-sputtering sources.
  • Metallography, ion and laser beam assisted sample preparation tools
  • ns laser structuring (1064 nm, 566 nm, 355 nm)
  • Inkjet printing
  • Microscopy (optical, NIR, module microscopy)
  • Electroluminescence Microscopy (EL, µEL)
  • Lock-in Thermography
  • Laser Scanning Microscopy
  • Analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX, EBSD, EBIC
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with EDX
  • Focused ion beam (FIB)
  • Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)
  • X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS)
  • Scanning probe microscopy (AFM/SPM)
  • Electrical micro probe characterization
  • Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM)

Electrical Characterization

sun simulator WaveLabs Sinus-220
© Fraunhofer CSP
With the sun simulator WaveLabs Sinus-220, we are able to measure the current efficiency at different light wavelengths.
  • Injection-dependent carrier lifetime (Si-block, -wafer)
  • Carrier-lifetime mapping (Si-block, -wafer)
  • Conductivity measurements (four-point, eddy current)
  • Position resolved electroluminescence (cells and mini-modules)
  • Position resolved photoluminescence (si-blocks, -wafers, solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Position-resolved lock-in-thermographie (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Light-induced local currents LBIC (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Internal and external quantum efficiency (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Chracterization of passivation layers
  • Doping profiles based on resistivity
  • Current-voltage-curves and parameter extraction (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • Solar simulator

 

Fraunhofer CSP
Develops LID Test for PERC Cells

 

Fraunhofer CSP Relies on a New Generation of LED Sun Simulators

 

Fraunhofer CSP and LED‘s Cooperate: WAVELABS Develops LED-based Solar Module Tester

 

Fraunhofer CSP and Freiberg Instruments Are Conjointly Developing a Test Procedure for PID

 

Fraunhofer CSP Honored at the IQ Innovation Prize

 

Mobile PID Check for Solar Modules: Fraunhofer CSP Receives Award in Singapore